From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most new computers have a network interface controller built into the motherboard. A user-level network stack” PDF. Retrieved May 2, An Ethernet network controller typically has an 8P8C socket where the network cable is connected. That way, taking the application locality into account results in higher overall performance, reduced latency and better hardware utilization, resulting from the higher utilization of CPU caches and fewer required context switches. Not to be confused with network interface device.
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GA-MA69GM-S2H (rev. ) | Motherboard – GIGABYTE Global
The hardware-based distribution of the interrupts, described above, is referred to as receive-side scaling RSS. Articles containing potentially dated statements from November All articles containing potentially dated statements. The NIC may use one or more of the following techniques to indicate the availability of packets to transfer:.
When a CPU just isn’t fast enough”. Retrieved 19 May The network controller implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such as Ethernet or Wi-Fi. It is primarily used with high-speed network interfaces, such as Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernetfor which the processing overhead of the network stack becomes significant.
Some NICs offer integrated field-programmable gate arrays FPGAs for user-programmable processing of network traffic before it reaches the host computer, allowing for significantly reduced latencies in time-sensitive workloads. Network controllers were originally implemented as expansion cards that plugged into a computer bus.
Some NICs  support transmit and receive queues without kernel support allowing the NIC to execute even when the functionality of mofherboard operating system of a critical system has been severely compromised.
That way, taking the application locality into account results in higher overall performance, reduced latency and better hardware utilization, resulting from the higher utilization of CPU caches and fewer required context switches.
Part 1 – Networking Hardware”. Views Read Edit View history. Not to be confused with network interface device. The NIC may distribute incoming traffic between the receive queues using a hash function.
A user-level network notherboard PDF. These define a standard receptacle for media-dependent motherbaord, so users can easily adapt the network motherboatd to their needs.
This kind of functionality is usually referred to as user-level networking. LEDs adjacent to or integrated into the network connector inform the user of whether the network is connected, and when data activity occurs. Retrieved May 12, In other projects Wikimedia Commons. A network interface controller NICalso known as a network interface cardnetwork adapterLAN adapter or physical network interface and by similar terms is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.
Retrieved from ” https: Modern network interface controllers offer advanced features such as interrupt and DMA interfaces to the host processors, support for multiple receive and transmit queues, partitioning into multiple logical interfaces, and on-controller network traffic processing such as the TCP offload engine.
A s Ethernet network interface controller that connects to the motherboard via the now-obsolete ISA bus.
A separate network card is typically no longer required unless additional independent network connections are needed or some non-Ethernet type of network is motherbozrd. An Ethernet network controller typically has an 8P8C socket where the network cable is connected. The Ethernet capabilities are either integrated into the motherboard chipset or implemented via a low-cost dedicated Ethernet chip.
Each receive queue is assigned to a separate interrupt ; by routing each of those interrupts to different CPUs or CPU coresprocessing of the interrupt requests triggered by the network traffic received by a laj NIC can be distributed improving performance.
Retrieved May 2, The NIC is both a physical layer and data link layer device, as it provides physical access to a networking medium and, for IEEE and similar networks, provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses that are uniquely assigned to network interfaces. A general trend in computer hardware is towards integrating the various components of systems on a chipand this is also applied to network interface cards.